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How volunteers can help freedom of information

Transparency regulations for business and government will help China’s ailing environment, writes Lu Dongting. But they will not go far enough, unless they incorporate the important work of environmental volunteers.

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The new transparency regulations, recently released by China’s State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA),have generated a lot of debate. But reading the document, I found myself asking: “If we only end up reading official information, what is the point in transparency?”

Successful public participation in environmental policy-making requires that relevant information is made freely available, and resulting public opinion is taken into account. 

Environmental protection is often restricted to the actions of business and government. Businesses are required to make environmental information public, and the government now discloses regional environmental information with greater detail than before. This lets the public know where pollution is coming from, and helps them understand the overall local situation 

This information will help the public learn about environmental protection. The more detailed it is, the better the public will be able to form their own opinions – and participate to a greater degree in environmental decision-making.

The public can acquire environmental information in various ways; waiting for the government or business to provide it is only one method. The public can also take the initiative: seeking out information; surveying the environment situation; and using its own potential to educate itself. It is like the difference between passive models of education: where children sit at desks, trying to absorb what the teacher tells them; and active methods where the students use their own initiative to learn. 

The public often complain that government fails to supply what they need, as if they cannot supply it themselves. Sometimes I think the public is indolent, almost proud of its lack of interest. What kind of society is this, where 1.3 billion people go no further than read official pronouncements and accept them, regardless of their accuracy or detail? Can the people only gain knowledge the government hands down to them?

We live in an age of democracy and individual initiative, with extremely successful NGOs at work, yet the government is still the largest “public interest organisation”. The people should not just rely on its announcements, they should create them. We should all work together to gain accurate knowledge of the society in which we live.  

Certain Chinese environmental organisations have been carrying out long-term public education projects. An important method is to bring the public closer to nature, appreciating its beauty through activities such as bird-watching, or understanding its problems by carrying out surveys of water pollution. We can gain an understanding and respect for nature, and its majesty and mystery. And learning about nature’s problems – which are mainly the consequences of human actions – can engender a sense of responsibility and consideration of how to improve the environment.

There has been a certain degree of success. Many people now understand their local environment, and are able to identify sources of pollution or consider environmental issues from a wider point of view. The number of volunteers is increasing annually, with some becoming experts. 

But problems remain. There is still no national network of environmental organisations. All Chinese cities of a certain size should have robust organisations that can teach locals about their environment, but even provincial capitals often lack such a group. Organisations such as science committees, university departments, forestry and water departments should be facilitating public learning and gathering environmental information, but they are not. There is also a lack of continuity: many groups launch a flurry of short-term projects, but fail to sustain them and do little to build up their reputation. Future society will require “public environmental service providers”, groups will need to gather and monitor information about the local environment to build public credibility. This must be done in a systematic, long-term manner. Activities should be held weekly, and each event should cover a different aspect of nature-watching. The organisation should mobilise and organise the public: they should find and work with local experts, participate in and draw attention to local debate. 

It is a Herculean task that SEPA and local environmental authorities are faced with. They need to help develop local environmental organisations so they can undertake this work. It is quite simple: let local people provide the funding, participate in the projects and share the results. Then produce a regular overview of the national environmental situation as revealed through volunteer efforts, which can complement information released by government and business. This is essential for effective public participation in environmental decision-making. 

The public do not lack intelligence, ability, or even funding – they just lack the organisation to actively participate. Environmental organisations can help the public and government do more for transparency of environmental information; all that is needed is to establish these local organisations as soon as possible. Those that exist should be re-invigorated; and where they do not exist, they should be brought into being.

 

Dongting Lu is a Beijing-based reporter.

Homepage photo by Shanghai Sky

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

皮球踢错了方向

我不能同意当前信息公开后群众会不闻不问的说法,也不同意公众只会抱怨的说法
大城市里面的市民对环境是很敏感的,例如旅游城市的市民们,因为那是他们的饭碗和骄傲所在,又或者是大部分人都知道买纯净水而不是喝自来水、装修后的住房不能立即入住,哪里的房子附近有污染工业,不能住。
即使是农村,污染过的河流,农民不用什么精密仪器就能发现,因为农作物不会说谎。又或者是多了老人咳嗽。这些消息是无法封锁的。
我们的主要问题不在于消息公开与否,在于政府努力与否。淮河、太湖、滇池,这些地方的污染程度不用任何检测,只要亲眼一看就知道问题到了什么地步。中央的拨款数字不可谓不小,结果如何?
在现阶段,政府依旧是垄断了大部分的公共资源,民间组织能发挥什么作用?河流、大气、湖泊的主要污染来源是哪里?不是我们居民,是工矿企业。又试问这些连地方政府都不敢轻易开罪的企业,民间组织能耐其几分何?
要信息公开,那么信息的真伪和来源如何保障,世银为我们作评估报告,连研究所需要的大部分数据我们都拿不出来,拿什么去公开?一个渤海,几个部门的污染评估都有数量级的差别,以哪一个为准?公布出来的数字,又以什么来保障它的真伪?
单纯的信息公开不能解决任何问题,然而,在资源和权力配置都没有改变的情况下,公众参与的效果不会比用在太湖治理上的预算好得了多少

The ball has been wrongly directed

I do not agree to the statement once the current information has became public, the crowds do not show interest on it, and also not agree to the statement whereby the crowds only complaining, environment are sensitive issue to residents in city, for instance, those residents visiting city, due to the fact that this is their bread and butter, and also their pride, or most of the people know that buying still water, but not drinking tap water, house cannot be moved in immediately after being renovated, due to the fact there is industry which caused pollution. Even in rural area, once the rivers have been polluted, the farmer will be able to notice it without using any advance apparatus to measure, because the crops will not lie, or increasing number of old folks infected by cough. That information would not be able to seal off. Our main concern is not to release the information become public or to seal it either, but is the effort from government. The degree of pollution happened at those places such as Huaihe River, Tai Hu Lake and Dianchi Lake do not require any detection; the condition will be able to tell with one’s own eyes. Though funding from Central Government is quite a big sum, what is the result?At current stage, government still monopolizes most of the public resources, what can be done by non-government organizations?
What is the main source of pollution for river, atmosphere and lake? Not the resident, but the industrial and mineral enterprises, which the local government also dare not to offence, what can be done by those non-government organizations? Release the information become public, how to ensure the reality and sources of the information, World Bank has assisting with the assessment report, however we are unable to supply databases required for the study, how to release the information become public? The figure which has been released, how to ensure the truth? Simply release the information become public cannot resolve the problem, but, with the condition of distribution of power and resources remain unchanged, the results from public involvement would not superior than the budget allocated for control pollution at Tai Hu Lake.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

进步

透明度提高表示进步。 罗马不是一天造成的, 然而已经是事实了。
Luke

A step forward

Transparency is a step forward. Rome wasn't built in a day, and this is already promising. Luke

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

信息获取

国际间在大力的推行供应和需求双方面的对于环境课题信息的获取, 此行动是值得注意的 (只要其余的获取权与环境相关)。和在其他国家一样,这项努力在中国有所影响。此有更多信息:http://www.accessinitiative.org/

The Access Initiative

It's worth noting that there is an international movement towards promoting both the _supply_ and _demand_ of access to information on environmental issues (as well as other 'access' rights related to the environment). This effort is making inroads in China, among other countries.

More information here: http://www.accessinitiative.org/

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

皮球又踢了回来

第一个评论者等于又把问题推到了"没有解决之路"的绝望感上.中国人最擅长这种绝望感,讨论着讨论着,发现哪都是墙,根本没有门缝可钻.
然而我们讨论的出路是一种可能性的出路,某个方面的突破能带来更多的连锁反应.中国的科研机构是掌握信息的,比如国家环保总局的中国环境监测总站,比如气象局下的各气象站,一直都在默默记录这个国家的环境变化.问题在这些信息过去公众是无权过问和领取的.公众只有权知道政府愿意提供的纲领性信息.
这样某种程度上养成了公众的信赖心理.没错,我们是把资源委托给了政府,政府不作为,所以公众不作为是应当的.但是,公众是有作为能力的,公众要想让政府有更多的作为,唯一的方式是强化自身的作为能力.而民间环保组织,是组织\带领公众开始作为的唯一途径.公众的作为力越强,政府的响应力才可能越强,指望政府率行开明起来,还不如公众强壮起来。

The ball is back in your court...

The person posting the first comment led the discussion into a blind alley, which makes Chinese people fall into desperation, as we nearly always seem to. During discussions, we always find ourselves trapped without a way out. But what we are talking here does have a way out...

In China, research and developement organisations collecting information. For example, the China General Station of Environmental Monitoring in the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), and the meteorological stations under Central Bureau of Meteorology. They all take responsibility for tracking environmental trends. At one time, people had no rights of concerns in enquiring about this information. The public could merely get access to the information which the government offered. And the public was trained to be dependent. It is true the government own the resources, but the public also have power to act. They can only make a difference when being led by non-governmental organisations. The more powerful the public is, the more influence they will have over government there will be. The public should be strong itself, rather than depending on the government.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

评论1和4都有道理

环保局要求大项目环评信息公开,就算公众看到了却无处发表意见,或是能发表但即使强烈反对也不能真正影响决策,一来二去,他们自然觉得无能为力而绝望,自然要求政府要真的采纳百姓呼声,而不是走走形式:瞧,我们也有信息公开和民主啦。

另一方面,如攀越局长文章里所说:知其不可而二为之,就是理想主义。我们需要这种精神,因为努力了不一定能改变社会实现目标;但如果放弃努力,则肯定啥也改变和实现不了。

Comment 1 and 4 are very pursuasive.

SEPA requires that the environmental evaluation details become accessible to the public. However, even if transparency is in place, the public has nowhere to give their comments, or even if it is possible for them to comment, there's no real power. They may try for once, twice, and be left feeling desperately powerless. They will naturally start urging the government to become a better listener and start asking them to stop being someone only superficially engaged: look, we also have transparency and democracy.

On the other hand, just like what is said in Pan Yue's article: Idealism is to go ahead knowing that chances of success are slim. We need this attitude. We try, though we might not be able to achieve our goals; but if we give up, there's never going to be any change and nothing will be achieved at all.