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什么造成了冰川退缩?

专家认为气候变化是造成中国西南地区明永冰川消融的原因,但当地的藏民却有不同的看法。郭净对此从云南发来报道。

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在云南省德钦县的卡瓦格博雪山,有中国冰舌前端海拔最低的明永冰川。最近几年,明永冰川持续消融和退缩,原因被专家归结为“全球气候变暖”。

2007年5月3日,明永冰川附近的雨崩村发生雪瀑,两位游客遇难,美国女孩简告诉我,那天下午他们看到悬崖上倾泻而下的雪瀑,具有专业登山救援经验的简意识到有灾难发生,从雪堆里刨出几个游客,其中一个女孩脊椎折断,大家做了个简易担架把她抬到村里,后来她得救了。

这次事件引起报刊和网上热烈讨论,最后不了了之,因为一谈到地质规律和全球气候变暖两个原因,话好像就说不下去了。然而,气候变暖不仅同天象和地理有关,更与人的行为有关,用古人的话讲,天人之间有种互动的关系;用佛教的话来说,是人的“共业”即共同行为造成了这样的后果。

所以,当地信仰佛教的藏族村民虽然也知道气候变暖的说法,但他们并没有把责任往全球变暖一推了事,而是把2007年雨崩的雪崩事件,同登山、旅游等一系列外来冲击联系起来,讲述了他们自己的认识。

不断出现的登山者遗体

1991年1月3日,中国和日本联合登山队在攀登卡瓦格博雪山(大众媒体称为梅里雪山)时遭遇雪崩,17名队员不幸遇难。后来中日双方搜寻遇难者的遗体和遗物,但因气候恶劣,无功而返。

7年过去。1998年7月18日,村民在明永冰川发现了梅里山难的遗骸和遗物。明永村村长大扎西在讲述的时候,反复强调把遗体遗物“干干净净地捡走”,不能留在冰川附近。大扎西说,“这些东西会污染神山,不能放那里。”

明永村民强烈反对持续多年的登山活动,当地藏族人认为,中日联合登山队多次攀登神山卡瓦格博,给当地带来了灾难。原荣中村的小队长却登说:“你们登了一次,考察一次,我们生态就受影响——下雨啊,发洪水啊,暴风啊,我从小到大,这个地方没有见过狼,现在驴、羊、牛放在那里,一小会儿就咬死吃光掉了。”

原西当村的书记阿古嘎忧虑地说:“特别是斯农和我们两个村,灾情相当严重。水灾,洪灾,各种灾情都发生。老百姓讲,太子雪山是全部藏族的神山之一,旅游我们欢迎,老百姓也欢迎,登山我们反对。”

村民并不认为冰川融化是一个孤立的事件,它和水灾、旱灾、狼祸、泥石流等灾害被看作一连串的警示,表明自然环境恶化和神山震怒的严重程度。

冰川旅游的后果

“梅里山难”和遗体遗物的发现,吸引了大批游客到明永冰川旅游,明永人靠给游人牵马一下成了德钦最富裕的村民。然而,我每次去明永,都感觉他们比以前更加担忧,因为他们看到冰川在迅速退缩。在旅游局工作的明永人扎西尼玛对我说:“藏语里面我们说‘查堵’,就是你触怒了神山,神山要发怒,‘查堵’就是给你一种灾难,要惩罚你。冰川在藏传佛教里是‘圣宫殿’的意思,是圣域,圣域是不能破坏的。”所以他认为冰川退缩,“那是因为大量游客进去后,我们不能保持其洁净,于是触怒了神山。”

从2003年开始,位于卡瓦格博最深处的雨崩村变成另一个火爆的旅游目的地,但才热闹了3年半,2007年5月3日便发生了神瀑大雪崩,埋葬了两名游客。和美国女孩简同在现场的一位朋友告诉我,他们到神瀑的时候,看见有的游客脱光上衣,挥舞手臂大声叫喊。藏族人都知道,神瀑是朝圣地,不能有任何不敬的举动。

云南省国土资源厅地质环境处处长、高级工程师耿弘10年来多次前往明永冰川进行勘察研究。他发现,由于为方便游客而修建的栈道位置紧临冰川,“在修建过程中,有很多石块跌落到冰面上,而石块本身是很强的热源,容易引起冰雪融化。同时,来往游人形成了巨大的热辐射,在这样的情况下冰川无法不消融。”

村民的分析

在村民看来,登山者和在雪山上喊叫吵闹的游客,以及其他种种不好的行为和带来污染的东西,例如留在冰川上的死难者遗物,村子旁边垃圾处理站焚烧垃圾的烟尘,都可能是带来“查堵”的根源。

扎西尼玛拍摄的影片《冰川》,记录了明永村民关于冰川融化的一场讨论,村民认为,将近100年以前,外国人来这里收集植物种子,他们做起妖法对付神山,此后冰川就明显消融了。一个村民说:“那么现在消融的原因呢?第一是用电,人随便上去,不爱护森林,污染冰川……现在冰川像得了大病,一天天消瘦。”

还有些其它的讨论:“以前冰川消融,只是冰舌收缩,冰下面不会融化,现在既收缩又变薄。2000年以后,来的人多,污染严重,又通了电,三件事碰在一起,特别糟糕。”

如果人不上去,不丢垃圾不用电,冰川就能自然恢复。现在的情况再继续,冰川还会收缩。

村民把冰川的退缩归结为几个原因:一是洋人造成的破坏;二是登山污染了冰川;三是游客的践踏;四是通电;五是垃圾污染。它们可以归纳为一个原因,就是近百年间外人的探险和开发活动对冰川造成了影响。这与专家们的看法形成很大的反差,专家看到的是自然因素,村民们看到的是人为因素。

人们在谈论“全球气候变暖”的时候,很容易推卸自己(一个地区,一个村庄,一个人群)的责任,将具体的人类行为的后果,变成一个纠缠在国际政治中的大题目;把一个有复杂文化背景的问题,简化成一个单纯的“科学问题”。于是,人们认为只要政治家去谈判、科学家去研究便可以了,大家该登山的继续登山,该旅游的继续旅游,该扔垃圾的继续扔垃圾。但自然的报应随之而来,任何一个人,一个地区,一个国家对生态环境的破坏,必然带来对整个人群的报应,享受着现代化之种种便利的政治家、科学家和发财致富的人们,也难逃此劫。“共业”由各人的行为一点点积累,其恶果也由大家共担。

明永冰川仍在快速融化,当地人的讨论还在继续。他们被卷入冰川旅游当中,可赚着钱心里却不安生。卡瓦格博的“查堵”就像悬在头上的利剑,令他们寝食不安。村民们很明白,没有什么专家或先进技术能阻止灾难的逼近,除了人们自己的觉悟和行动。

  

 作者简介:郭净为云南省社会科学院研究员。
 
首页图片由Richard.Asia

 

 

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

全球变暖的责任,人类行为占大半

自然因素被归结为全球气候变暖,但全球变暖相当大程度上都是由人类行为造成的,就像大量排放温室气体。当地村民对环境的态度和猜想虽然多少有些被神话,但也反映出在全球气候变暖中人类责任的重大。

郭净文中提到当地的通电问题,但问题并不在通电本身。中国的电能主要还是通过火力发电提供,火力发电依赖于燃烧煤矿,燃烧煤矿所排放的二氧化碳量比燃烧等量石油所排放的要大得多。通过对南极冰层的研究,现在大气中的二氧化碳量比过去65万年中的最高值,将近300p/mv,高出近一倍,并且还在继续加速增长。但如过使用清洁能源比如光伏技术和风力发电,电仍然可以用,全球变暖也可以变缓。矛盾可能出在对这些新能源技术的推广应用上。光伏太阳能发电技术的成本仍然很高,风力发电又受地域和国家电网的限制。而且中国西部经济本身就很落后,经济发展和环境保护存在很大矛盾。所以现在需要做的是如何解决能源利用转型的问题,而不应该单纯的责怪通电有害来逃避问题。

human activities account for most of global warming

Global warming is imputed to natural elements but, just like the mass emission of greenhouse gases, the warming is man-made to a great extent. Local villagers' attitude and rational toward the environment, though more or less deified, expresses the effects of human action on the environment.

The the village having newly been connected to electricity mentioned in Guo Jing's article is not really a causes of glacial melting in and of itself. Power generation in China is mainly thermal power generation heavily reliant on coal, which emits much more CO2 than that from burning petroleum in same amount. Now the CO2 volume is around two times as its peak (near 300p/mv) in last 650 thousands years, and is accelerating its growth, according to a research on Antarctic ice layers.

However, the electricity is still usable if it is a clean energy like power generated from photovoltaic technology or wind force,
and the global warming can be slowed down under this mode of power utilization. The rub here might be the promotion and usage of these new energy technologies, as the solar power generation by photovoltaic system is high in costs and the wind power generation is confined to geographic distribution and national grid. Also, west China has a poor economy itself, which makes it a big conflict between its economic growth and environmental protection. So, what need to be done now is to work out how to make a successful transformation of energy use, instead of confusing matters by simply blaming the power connection.

Translated by Ming Li

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我们不要技术

身为画家,我完全同意你的观点。在技术的帮助下我们构建了一个世界, 结果,幻想着能让我们过得更好的技术却成了摧毁我们自身的武器。我以画为媒,以幻现人类与环境间的紧张状态来表达我的关注。我愿意与你分享我的见解。

www.chenping.com.au 陈平

本评论由Ming Li翻译

We don't need technology

As an artist, I totally agree with your view. We have built the world with help of technology we thought it would be better for us but has turned up to be a weapon to destroy ourselves. I have expressed my concern through my paintings which visualising the tension between human and environment. I would like to share my vision with you.

www.chenping.com.au

Chen Ping

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

人类活动是环境局部变化最终杀手

赞同文中村民的看法,洁白无瑕的雪的确不易融化,被污染的雪反而融化速度很快,我们一般都应有这样的常识。村民们一再强调带走你们的脏物和污染物是很有道理的,所谓的全球变暖所表现的外部特征也只是局部的体现,诸如冰川消融、两极的冰盖消融这类的,但试想想,这些哪样不是因为人类对这些原本无人烟的地方加大了活动的频率和范围,玷污了当地的洁净水、天空、大地等。
本人认为全球的变暖主要是地球接受到外面辐射的影响,但人类活动对地球局部自然环境的破坏却是致命的,人类活动到哪儿,哪儿生态环境就逃脱不了退化的命运。
人类的欲望总将毁了地球。
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Human activities: a terminator to local environmental changes

I agree with the villagers's view in this article. We should all have the common sense to know that polluted snow melts faster than perfectly pure snow, which is indeed hard to thaw. It is rational that the villagers constantly stressed to the climbers that they take away their dirty trash and pollutants.

The characteristic features of so-called global warming is actually just displayed by local climate change such as melting glaciers and polar icecap thinning. Which one of these, can you imagine, is not caused by more frequent and more intense human activities in places without human footprints ever before, which pollute local clean water, sky and earth?

I think global warming is caused by extraterrestrial radiation. But I think that human activity can have harmful, even fatal effects on the local environment. The environment is unable to escape the destiny of degradation. Human greed will ultimately destroy the earth.

(Translated by Ming Li.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

人类消融(1)

“小国寡民。使有什伯之器而不用,使民重死而不远徙。虽有舟舆,无所乘之;虽有甲兵,无所陈之。使民复结绳而用之。甘其食,美其服,安其居,乐其俗。邻国相望,鸡犬之声相闻,民至老死不相往来。”---引自老子的《道德经》。其中之反技术的观念在今日看来似乎难于理解,然就我看来,这位道家大师对人类竞争本性的癖好,有着极深邃地理解。

本评论由Ming Li翻译

MELTING HUMAN(1)

“A small country has fewer people. Though there are machines that can work ten to hundred times faster than man, they are not needed. The people take death seriously and do not travel far. Though they have boats and carriages, no one uses them. Though they have armour and weapons, no one displays them. Men return to the knotting of rope in place of writing. Their food is plain and good, their clothes fine but simple, their homes secure; they are happy in their ways. Though they live within sight of their neighbours, and crowing roosters and barking dogs are heard across the way, yet they never visit each other till death.” This quotation is from ancient “Tao Te Ching” of Lao Tsu. Its anti-technology idea seems incomprehensible in our modern time, but in my opinion, the Taoist master profoundly understood the weakness of the competitive nature of humankind.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

人类消融(2)

然而,现代科学冲破了神秘主义的禁锢。比如,中国那构建于道家“天人合一”观念,既简朴又自给自足的农业社会生活方式,在19世纪由于外部入侵与工业革命而受到影响。现在的中国已成了世界最大的日用品生产国。两千年来,对人与自然关系的神秘思索延续至今,不靠科学证据,中国人也对这一相互依存关系的理解达到了一个相当高的境界。与之对比鲜明的是,西方经由深奥的科学研究探索宇宙,获得了高度发展的技术。这些技术把人类送入太空、让我们驭空旅行及以精密的医疗设备挽救生命。技术的优势无以否认,而每一天我们还是从对自然的探索中学到了更多的真相。

本评论由Ming Li翻译

MELTING HUMAN(2)

However, modern science has triumphed over mysticism. For example, in the 19th Century, the Chinese agricultural society with their simple and self-sufficient ways of life based on the Taoist concept, “man and nature are one”, were affected by foreign invasion and the Industrial Revolution. Now, China has become the world’s biggest producer of commodities. The two thousand year tradition of mystically contemplating the relationship between man and nature has brought Chinese people to understand this interdependent relationship at a very high level without relying on scientific evidence. In contrast, the West has studied the universe through deep scientific research which has resulted in highly developed technology. These technologies have sent us to space, allowed us to travel by aeroplane, and saved lives through complex medical equipment. The advantage of technologies is undeniable, but everyday we still learn more truth about nature.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

人类消融(3)

我们怎么敢断言不靠技术,我们的生活会更好?问题是,更靠近自然真相的,究竟是中国的神秘式思索,还是西方的科学研究?我选择中国的神秘只是基于一个简单的理由:宇宙是绝不可能被完全了解的。尽管科学发现了不少奥秘,但相比于宇宙本身,我们仍是知之甚少。故而要在最高境界上了解宇宙,仅靠科学手段是做不到的,其反而需要在人与宇宙间进行复杂的对话与冥想。事实上,我们的生存已因技术而处在前所未有的威胁中。技术在全球范围内以激发竞争引发冲突的方式,把各国拉得比以往更为紧密得多。现代人对财富竞拼式的追求已过度耗竭了自然资源,并玷污了环境。

本评论由Ming Li翻译

MELTING HUMAN(3)

How can we dare to claim that our life would be better without technologies? The question is, which has been closer to the truth of nature, the Chinese mystical contemplation or the Western scientific research? My answer is the Chinese mysticism, for a simple reason. The universe will never be understood completely. Although scientific discoveries have achieved much, in comparison with the universe itself, we still know very little. Therefore understanding the universe at the highest level can not be achieved simply through scientific means, instead it requires complex dialogue and meditation between humankind and the universe. In fact, our survival has never been so much under threat because of technologies. They have brought nations closer than ever, both stimulating competition and conflicts on a global scale. Modern competitive pursuit of wealth has overly exhausted resources and polluted the environment.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

冰川消融

冰川消融是目前不争的事实,不仅在国内,而且在国外。我们已经知道冰川在消融,以什么样的速度在退缩,但我们对于抑制冰川的退缩却表现得无能为力。由于冰川退缩在短期势必带来洪灾,泥石流等自然灾害;从长期看,冰川这个高山纯净淡水水塔的将会消失殆尽。在30年或是50年或是百年之后,我们的子孙将会到哪儿去生存?目前发生的极端气候事件,也让我们怀疑《2012》是否会真的到来?这些灾难也应该让我们擦亮眼睛,保护我们的生态环境,我们要为自己的现在和未来生存处境而行动起来!
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Melting glaciers

Melting glaciers are an indisputable fact, not only in China but also outside. We already know that the glaciers are melting and at what speed they are retreating at, but we powerless in suppressing the retreat of these glaciers. Due to the retreating glaciers, natural disasters such as floods and mudslides are bound to happen in the short term; and in the long term, glaciers, a high mountain of pure water, will vanish. 30 years or 50 years or 100 years later, where will our children survive? The current extreme climate situation also makes us wonder whether the movie "2012" will really happen? These disasters should open our eyes to the situation and we need take action by protecting our ecological environment, for our existence in the present and future.