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如果十三亿人只懂得看“公告”

加大政府和企业信息的公开化有助解决中国严重的环境问题。 但吕洞庭指出说,信息的公开只有和环境志愿者的努力相结合,环保努力才能真正有成效。

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近日,许多人在讨论国家环保总局出台的“环境信息公开暂行办法”。看到这个办法,我却在想一个问题:假如十三亿人,只懂得看公告,环境信息公开,真的就那么有用了吗?

“公众参与环境决策”之车能够运行,必须依赖两根轨道,一是环境信息公开,二是公众的意见必须得到征用。

政府与企业都是组织体,当前,环境保护工作多半指向各类“组织体”行为对环境的影响,包括生产型影响和消费型影响。当政府要求企业公开环境信息的时候,政府也很有必要把一些事关公众的区域性环境信息,公开得更精细、更彻底、更坦诚。这样,公众既能够对企业的“污染点”有了解,又能把握本区域环境形势的整体情况。

同时,公众了解环境信息的过程,也是掌握环保知识的过程。环境信息越详细,公众的环境知识就越丰富,判断力越准确,鉴别力越清晰。其参与环境决策的水平就会有所提高。

然而公众获得环境信息的手段是多样化的,等待政府提供,等待企业透明放开,是一条通路,主动地去寻求、探查、获知,利用公众内部潜藏的能量,进行自我的环境信息教育,也是一条重要的通路。如果我们用学习来比喻,前者是被动的学习,是受制于他系统的学习;而后者是主动的学习,是命运掌握在自己手上的学习。

公众老是在抱怨政府,一切都等待施舍。政府不提供的,好像自己就无法拿到。有时候想,公众是懒惰的,以不负责、不闻知为荣的。想像一下,如果十三亿人都翘着眼睛只等着看“公告”,那会是个什么样的社会?公告上有什么,就看什么,假的,就任其假,虚的,就任其虚;粗纲大要的,就任其粗纲大要。好像公益是政府的事,好像只有政府下了命令,公民才有获知的能力。

如今的社会是个民主的时代,是个人主动的时代,是民间环保组织大有作为的时代,也是政府成为“最大的公益组织”的时代。此时,公众不仅要会看“公告”,而且要自己制作“公告”,每个人心里都应当明镜似的,有一份公告。因为,知识,信息,真相,它就在那里。你只要到达,就能证悟。

国内一些环保组织一直在进行环境公众教育。其中一个重要的手段,就是引导公众走向自然。这里的走向自然包括两大块,一融入社会,二是贴近自然。而对自然的贴近和观察记录,既包括自然界的美好(比如观鸟),也包括自然界的苦难(比如污水调查)。自然界的美好,让人体会到了自然界的博大和神秘,生起敬畏自然之心。自然界的苦难,多半是人类活动的创伤和毒害,了解到了人类的恶果,顺藤摸瓜,很容易就能推导出这些恶果的“责任源”,主动去琢磨如何改善人类的行为方式。

由于民间环保组织持续多年的努力,这样的自然观察算是有了一定的进展,不少人因此清楚地掌握了本地的环境真实信息,不少人甚至能够对污染源进行定位,不少人能够从更加宏观的角度来考虑环保问题;志愿者团体每年都有所增加,有些志愿者已经成为专家。

但也存在问题,一是尚未形成全国性的网络。中国的县级以上城市按理都应该有一个能力颇强的环保组织长期带领志愿者观察本地的环境状态,以维护本地的环境公益。但是,目前除了北京等几个大型城市之外,许多省会城市都没有环保组织活动,一些具备引导公众观察自然、通过主动寻求获得环境信息的部门(比如科协,比如大学相关专业,比如林业部门、水利部门、环保部门),也没有尽到该尽的责任。二是缺乏持续性的活动。许多环保组织成立之初,就忙于应接各类短暂型的项目和活动,而缺乏常规性的、品牌性的,或者说,必须开发的“产品”。今后的社会,会越来越要求环保组织成为当地的“公众环保服务机构”,而其获得公众基础和信任的前提,就是必须着眼于本地的环境信息调查和观察。这种观察和调查必须是制度性的、长期性的。每周都有活动,每次的活动都能够把观察自然必须的几个大方向都能开展起来,但同时又能够资源共享和“专业打通”。此时,环保组织的任务一是发动、组织志愿者;二是寻找、撬动本地的专家;三是引导当地的舆论关注。

因此,从这个意义上说,国家环保总局和各级环保部门还有一个非常艰巨的任务,就是帮助各地尽快成立能开展观察自然活动的民间环保组织。方法很简单,就是“当地人解决当地事”,让当地人出经费,让当地人出智慧,让当地人出精力,让当地人出的成果由当地共享。当这些成果汇总时,一个随时更新的、全国的环境信息实况图,就会呈现在国人面前。有了这样的通过大量志愿者努力共同、主动调查出来的环境信息,与政府、企业公布的环境信息,才可能相得益彰,互相促进。国民的环保素质,才可能出现飞跃。国民参与环境决策的有效性,才会得到彰显。

公众缺乏的不是智慧和能力,也不缺乏经费,公众缺乏的只是一个广泛地主动参与的机会和理由,缺乏的只是一个引导机构。民间环保组织能够在环境信息公开方面帮助政府和公众做很多事情,现在需要的,只是尽快在各地迅速构建立足本地的民间环保组织。已经有的要激活,没有的要尽快促进成立。

 

作者简介:吕洞庭,北京记者。

首页图片由Shanghai Sky拍摄

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

皮球踢错了方向

我不能同意当前信息公开后群众会不闻不问的说法,也不同意公众只会抱怨的说法
大城市里面的市民对环境是很敏感的,例如旅游城市的市民们,因为那是他们的饭碗和骄傲所在,又或者是大部分人都知道买纯净水而不是喝自来水、装修后的住房不能立即入住,哪里的房子附近有污染工业,不能住。
即使是农村,污染过的河流,农民不用什么精密仪器就能发现,因为农作物不会说谎。又或者是多了老人咳嗽。这些消息是无法封锁的。
我们的主要问题不在于消息公开与否,在于政府努力与否。淮河、太湖、滇池,这些地方的污染程度不用任何检测,只要亲眼一看就知道问题到了什么地步。中央的拨款数字不可谓不小,结果如何?
在现阶段,政府依旧是垄断了大部分的公共资源,民间组织能发挥什么作用?河流、大气、湖泊的主要污染来源是哪里?不是我们居民,是工矿企业。又试问这些连地方政府都不敢轻易开罪的企业,民间组织能耐其几分何?
要信息公开,那么信息的真伪和来源如何保障,世银为我们作评估报告,连研究所需要的大部分数据我们都拿不出来,拿什么去公开?一个渤海,几个部门的污染评估都有数量级的差别,以哪一个为准?公布出来的数字,又以什么来保障它的真伪?
单纯的信息公开不能解决任何问题,然而,在资源和权力配置都没有改变的情况下,公众参与的效果不会比用在太湖治理上的预算好得了多少

The ball has been wrongly directed

I do not agree to the statement once the current information has became public, the crowds do not show interest on it, and also not agree to the statement whereby the crowds only complaining, environment are sensitive issue to residents in city, for instance, those residents visiting city, due to the fact that this is their bread and butter, and also their pride, or most of the people know that buying still water, but not drinking tap water, house cannot be moved in immediately after being renovated, due to the fact there is industry which caused pollution. Even in rural area, once the rivers have been polluted, the farmer will be able to notice it without using any advance apparatus to measure, because the crops will not lie, or increasing number of old folks infected by cough. That information would not be able to seal off. Our main concern is not to release the information become public or to seal it either, but is the effort from government. The degree of pollution happened at those places such as Huaihe River, Tai Hu Lake and Dianchi Lake do not require any detection; the condition will be able to tell with one’s own eyes. Though funding from Central Government is quite a big sum, what is the result?At current stage, government still monopolizes most of the public resources, what can be done by non-government organizations?
What is the main source of pollution for river, atmosphere and lake? Not the resident, but the industrial and mineral enterprises, which the local government also dare not to offence, what can be done by those non-government organizations? Release the information become public, how to ensure the reality and sources of the information, World Bank has assisting with the assessment report, however we are unable to supply databases required for the study, how to release the information become public? The figure which has been released, how to ensure the truth? Simply release the information become public cannot resolve the problem, but, with the condition of distribution of power and resources remain unchanged, the results from public involvement would not superior than the budget allocated for control pollution at Tai Hu Lake.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

进步

透明度提高表示进步。 罗马不是一天造成的, 然而已经是事实了。
Luke

A step forward

Transparency is a step forward. Rome wasn't built in a day, and this is already promising. Luke

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

信息获取

国际间在大力的推行供应和需求双方面的对于环境课题信息的获取, 此行动是值得注意的 (只要其余的获取权与环境相关)。和在其他国家一样,这项努力在中国有所影响。此有更多信息:http://www.accessinitiative.org/

The Access Initiative

It's worth noting that there is an international movement towards promoting both the _supply_ and _demand_ of access to information on environmental issues (as well as other 'access' rights related to the environment). This effort is making inroads in China, among other countries.

More information here: http://www.accessinitiative.org/

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

皮球又踢了回来

第一个评论者等于又把问题推到了"没有解决之路"的绝望感上.中国人最擅长这种绝望感,讨论着讨论着,发现哪都是墙,根本没有门缝可钻.
然而我们讨论的出路是一种可能性的出路,某个方面的突破能带来更多的连锁反应.中国的科研机构是掌握信息的,比如国家环保总局的中国环境监测总站,比如气象局下的各气象站,一直都在默默记录这个国家的环境变化.问题在这些信息过去公众是无权过问和领取的.公众只有权知道政府愿意提供的纲领性信息.
这样某种程度上养成了公众的信赖心理.没错,我们是把资源委托给了政府,政府不作为,所以公众不作为是应当的.但是,公众是有作为能力的,公众要想让政府有更多的作为,唯一的方式是强化自身的作为能力.而民间环保组织,是组织\带领公众开始作为的唯一途径.公众的作为力越强,政府的响应力才可能越强,指望政府率行开明起来,还不如公众强壮起来。

The ball is back in your court...

The person posting the first comment led the discussion into a blind alley, which makes Chinese people fall into desperation, as we nearly always seem to. During discussions, we always find ourselves trapped without a way out. But what we are talking here does have a way out...

In China, research and developement organisations collecting information. For example, the China General Station of Environmental Monitoring in the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), and the meteorological stations under Central Bureau of Meteorology. They all take responsibility for tracking environmental trends. At one time, people had no rights of concerns in enquiring about this information. The public could merely get access to the information which the government offered. And the public was trained to be dependent. It is true the government own the resources, but the public also have power to act. They can only make a difference when being led by non-governmental organisations. The more powerful the public is, the more influence they will have over government there will be. The public should be strong itself, rather than depending on the government.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

评论1和4都有道理

环保局要求大项目环评信息公开,就算公众看到了却无处发表意见,或是能发表但即使强烈反对也不能真正影响决策,一来二去,他们自然觉得无能为力而绝望,自然要求政府要真的采纳百姓呼声,而不是走走形式:瞧,我们也有信息公开和民主啦。

另一方面,如攀越局长文章里所说:知其不可而二为之,就是理想主义。我们需要这种精神,因为努力了不一定能改变社会实现目标;但如果放弃努力,则肯定啥也改变和实现不了。

Comment 1 and 4 are very pursuasive.

SEPA requires that the environmental evaluation details become accessible to the public. However, even if transparency is in place, the public has nowhere to give their comments, or even if it is possible for them to comment, there's no real power. They may try for once, twice, and be left feeling desperately powerless. They will naturally start urging the government to become a better listener and start asking them to stop being someone only superficially engaged: look, we also have transparency and democracy.

On the other hand, just like what is said in Pan Yue's article: Idealism is to go ahead knowing that chances of success are slim. We need this attitude. We try, though we might not be able to achieve our goals; but if we give up, there's never going to be any change and nothing will be achieved at all.